|By Patrick Correia||
|June 5, 2006 04:00 PM EDT||
How to Implement Basic Authentication with ColdFusion
The first time a Web browser requests a page that's protected by Basic authentication, the Web server needs a way to tell it that it should stop and ask the user for login information. It does this by sending a response to the initial request with the status code 401 ("Access Denied"). In this response, it also sends information about what types of authentication it's willing to accept (this is the "WWW-Authenticate" header). In this article, we're only discussing Basic Authentication, but other more complex (and more secure) methods exist such as Digest authentication and Microsoft's proprietary NTLM authentication. Along with the 401 response the server also sends a user-friendly (or at least user-readable) explanation of why access is being denied.
When the browser gets the 401 response, before showing the user the "Access Denied" message, it prompts for a user name and password. If the user provides credentials, the browser repeats the request and includes the user name and password in an "Authorization" request header. If the credentials are sufficient, the server then sends the requested page with a 200 ("OK") status code. If the credentials aren't acceptable to the server, it simply sends back the same 401 response, which makes the browser prompt the user again. If the user declines to provide credentials (by clicking a "Cancel" button on the password prompt, for example), or fails to provide acceptable credentials a certain number of times (usually three, although it's up to the Web browser to decide), the browser stops prompting the user and shows the user the "Access Denied" message provided by the server.
Listing 1 shows the code needed to implement Basic Authentication. This code should be included at the top of any page that needs to be protected by authentication (an Application.cfm file is a good place, for example).
The first lines use the built-in ColdFusion function GetHttpRequestData() to retrieve complete information on the request headers sent by the client and ensure that our session-level user variable is initialized. Then the code checks to see if the client has provided the "Authorization" header that contains the login and password. The "Authorization" header consists of two parts separated by a single space: first, the authentication scheme (in this case "Basic"); and second, the user name and password separated by a colon and Base64-encoded to protect them from character set issues during transmission. The user name and password are decoded using the ToBinary() and ToString() functions, and the application verifies that they're correct (obviously this part will vary from application to application). If the user hasn't been logged in either by providing incorrect credentials or by not providing any at all, the response code is set to 401 and the "WWW-Authenticate" response header is added. Finally, a user-friendly "Access Denied" message is added to the response and execution is stopped so the server sends only the "Access Denied" message back to the client.
Even if the user has cookies disabled, so the user's session doesn't persist from request to request, the user won't be prompted again for a login and password. However, in this case, you won't be able to store any other data in the session scope without resorting to passing session identifiers as URL parameters.
Since the browser is getting accurate response codes throughout the transaction, there's no need to write code to redirect the user after a successful login. This is an additional benefit of using Basic authentication and means that your application fully supports deep linking and bookmarking without any extra code.
The Authentication Realm
There's one additional piece of information that the server sends in the "WWW-Authenticate" header: the authentication realm. The realm is defined as a string that uniquely identifies the set of resources on the server that all use the same user account source. The browser assumes that if it has prompted the user for a login and password for a resource on a given server, it can reuse the same credentials for another resource in the same realm on the same server.
Although the specification for Basic authentication discourages the use of the realm for any purpose other than matching it for equality against other realm values, in practice the realm actually has another important function. When most browsers prompt the user for login credentials, they show the realm as a description of the application the user is logging in to. So it's a good idea to set the realm in your authentication code to a brief description of your application (this description would replace the string "MyApplication" in Listing 1).
Caching of Credentials: The End of Session Expiration
When a browser gets a 401 ("Access Denied") message in response to a request for a given resource, it checks to see if the realm specified in the "WWW-Authenticate" header matches any realms it has already authenticated against on the current server for the current browser session. If it finds credentials that have been accepted for that realm, it retries the request using those credentials (prompting the user for credentials only if the cached credentials are rejected by the server). The browser also assumes that resources in subdirectories below the resources for which it has already been prompted to authenticate will be part of the same realm and preemptively sends the cached credentials the first time it requests these resources. These two facts contribute to one of the biggest advantages of Basic authentication: the end of session expiration messages.
Examine Listing 1 again and consider what happens if the user has been previously authenticated but has been inactive enough that the session expired. On the next request, a new session is initiated by the ColdFusion server and SESSION.loggedInUserName is set to an empty string. If the browser has previously requested the page, it will have preemptively sent the login credentials; if not, it will check its cache and see that it already has credentials for the specified realm and it will repeat the request, providing the cached credentials. In either case, the user has been automatically logged back into the application without being prompted! This provides a much smoother and less confusing experience for the user.
Keep in mind that this may have some affect on your application architecture. If you're using the session scope only to cache information that's already stored in a database somewhere, your application can probably be converted to Basic authentication with no issues. However, if you store temporary data in the session scope (such as shopping cart information), you may have to consider a different approach since the user may have multiple ColdFusion sessions over the course of what they consider a single session of interacting with the Web application. Just remember that a user session might be initialized on any page of your application.
Limitations of Basic Authentication
Basic authentication isn't without its limitations. First and foremost, it's important to realize that the user name and password is transmitted from the browser to the Web server in unencrypted clear text. (The Base64 encoding isn't a security measure - it's designed to be easily reversible.) If you consider the data in your application to be sensitive, you should definitely use an additional security layer such as SSL to protect the transmission of the user name and password (as well as the data). That being said, this lack of encryption is a limitation that's common to both forms-based and Basic authentication.
The other significant limitation of Basic authentication, and the only major drawback to using it over forms-based authentication, is that it provides much less opportunity for context around the login and password. A forms-based solution can show information around the login box explaining the format of the login and, in the case of password errors, can provide detailed information about what went wrong. Additionally, the login prompt can be customized to match the look-and-feel of the rest of the application. When implementing HTTP Basic authentication, you should provide an entry page that isn't authenticated that provides this information so the user is prepared to enter the appropriate login and password information.
Basic authentication provides an alternative to traditional forms-based authentication methods. By sticking closely to the HTTP specification, this method leverages features built in to the Web browser to prevent confusing session expiration problems and the need to code around other limitations in non-standard forms-based authentication methods.
|MikeR 06/08/06 11:43:56 PM EDT|
Interesting article but it failed to mention the huge flaw with basic auth.
Basic authentication can't be used for most real-world sites because:
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Feb. 12, 2016 06:00 AM EST Reads: 247
Eighty percent of a data scientist’s time is spent gathering and cleaning up data, and 80% of all data is unstructured and almost never analyzed. Cognitive computing, in combination with Big Data, is changing the equation by creating data reservoirs and using natural language processing to enable analysis of unstructured data sources. This is impacting every aspect of the analytics profession from how data is mined (and by whom) to how it is delivered. This is not some futuristic vision: it's ha...
Feb. 12, 2016 05:45 AM EST Reads: 453
Silver Spring Networks, Inc. (NYSE: SSNI) extended its Internet of Things technology platform with performance enhancements to Gen5 – its fifth generation critical infrastructure networking platform. Already delivering nearly 23 million devices on five continents as one of the leading networking providers in the market, Silver Spring announced it is doubling the maximum speed of its Gen5 network to up to 2.4 Mbps, increasing computational performance by 10x, supporting simultaneous mesh communic...
Feb. 12, 2016 05:00 AM EST
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, will provide an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profes...
Feb. 12, 2016 02:30 AM EST Reads: 223
With the Apple Watch making its way onto wrists all over the world, it’s only a matter of time before it becomes a staple in the workplace. In fact, Forrester reported that 68 percent of technology and business decision-makers characterize wearables as a top priority for 2015. Recognizing their business value early on, FinancialForce.com was the first to bring ERP to wearables, helping streamline communication across front and back office functions. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kevin Roberts...
Feb. 12, 2016 12:45 AM EST Reads: 402
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Feb. 12, 2016 12:00 AM EST Reads: 281
One of the bewildering things about DevOps is integrating the massive toolchain including the dozens of new tools that seem to crop up every year. Part of DevOps is Continuous Delivery and having a complex toolchain can add additional integration and setup to your developer environment. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, Miko Matsumura, Chief Marketing Officer of Gradle Inc., will discuss which tools to use in a developer stack, how to provision the toolchain to minimize onboa...
Feb. 11, 2016 10:00 PM EST Reads: 123
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 ad...
Feb. 11, 2016 03:45 PM EST Reads: 415
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, Inc., the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Alert Logic, Inc., provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for customers at a lower cost than traditional security solutions. Ful...
Feb. 11, 2016 02:45 PM EST Reads: 443
The Quantified Economy represents the total global addressable market (TAM) for IoT that, according to a recent IDC report, will grow to an unprecedented $1.3 trillion by 2019. With this the third wave of the Internet-global proliferation of connected devices, appliances and sensors is poised to take off in 2016. In his session at @ThingsExpo, David McLauchlan, CEO and co-founder of Buddy Platform, will discuss how the ability to access and analyze the massive volume of streaming data from mil...
Feb. 11, 2016 01:45 PM EST
Join us at Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo 2016 – June 7-9 at the Javits Center in New York City and November 1-3 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – and deliver your unique message in a way that is striking and unforgettable by taking advantage of SYS-CON's unmatched high-impact, result-driven event / media packages.
Feb. 11, 2016 01:45 PM EST
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management...
Feb. 11, 2016 01:30 PM EST Reads: 441
WebSocket is effectively a persistent and fat pipe that is compatible with a standard web infrastructure; a "TCP for the Web." If you think of WebSocket in this light, there are other more hugely interesting applications of WebSocket than just simply sending data to a browser. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Frank Greco, Director of Technology for Kaazing Corporation, will compare other modern web connectivity methods such as HTTP/2, HTTP Streaming, Server-Sent Events and new W3C event APIs ...
Feb. 11, 2016 12:00 PM EST
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, will discuss the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filte...
Feb. 11, 2016 12:00 PM EST Reads: 217
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies adopt disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevO...
Feb. 11, 2016 11:30 AM EST Reads: 251
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of enterprise storage for the hybrid cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Avere delivers a more modern architectural approach to storage that doesn’t require the overprovisioning of storage capacity to achieve performance, overspending on expensive storage media for inactive data or the overbuilding of data centers ...
Feb. 11, 2016 11:30 AM EST
Fortunately, meaningful and tangible business cases for IoT are plentiful in a broad array of industries and vertical markets. These range from simple warranty cost reduction for capital intensive assets, to minimizing downtime for vital business tools, to creating feedback loops improving product design, to improving and enhancing enterprise customer experiences. All of these business cases, which will be briefly explored in this session, hinge on cost effectively extracting relevant data from ...
Feb. 11, 2016 11:00 AM EST Reads: 134
Companies can harness IoT and predictive analytics to sustain business continuity; predict and manage site performance during emergencies; minimize expensive reactive maintenance; and forecast equipment and maintenance budgets and expenditures. Providing cost-effective, uninterrupted service is challenging, particularly for organizations with geographically dispersed operations.
Feb. 11, 2016 10:15 AM EST
As enterprises work to take advantage of Big Data technologies, they frequently become distracted by product-level decisions. In most new Big Data builds this approach is completely counter-productive: it presupposes tools that may not be a fit for development teams, forces IT to take on the burden of evaluating and maintaining unfamiliar technology, and represents a major up-front expense. In his session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Andrew Warfield, CTO and Co-Founder of Coho Data, will dis...
Feb. 11, 2016 09:15 AM EST Reads: 208
SYS-CON Events announced today that iDevices®, the preeminent brand in the connected home industry, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. iDevices, the preeminent brand in the connected home industry, has a growing line of HomeKit-enabled products available at the largest retailers worldwide. Through the “Designed with iDevices” co-development program and its custom-built IoT Cloud Infrastruc...
Feb. 11, 2016 09:00 AM EST Reads: 118