Click here to close now.

Welcome!

You will be redirected in 30 seconds or close now.

ColdFusion Authors: Yakov Fain, Maureen O'Gara, Nancy Y. Nee, Tad Anderson, Daniel Kaar

Related Topics: Java, XML, Microservices Journal, ColdFusion, .NET, AJAX & REA

Java: Article

Eleven Tips to Becoming a Better Performance Engineer

How to conduct performance testing

The ability to conduct effective performance testing has become a highly desired skillset within the IT industry. Unfortunately, these highly sought-after skills are consistently in short supply. "Front-end testers" can work with a tool to create a realistic load and although this is an important skillset, creating the load is just the beginning of any performance project. Understanding the load patterns and tuning the environment makes the unique talents of a "performance engineer" worth their weight in gold.

Performance engineers require skills in data analysis such as resource usage patterns, modeling, capacity planning, and tuning in order to detect, isolate, and alleviate saturation points within a deployment. Performance testing generates concurrency conditions and exposes resource competition at a server level. When the competition results in a resource (such as a thread pool) becoming over-utilized, this resource becomes a bottleneck or a saturation point. Performance engineers need to first understand the underlying architectures and develop a sense of where to look for potential scalability issues. Much of these "senses" or skills come from experience, working in many multi-tier environments and successfully tuning bottlenecks. Here are some tips to make the challenging but rewarding transition from a front-end tester to a performance engineer.

Wisdom, Determination, Patience, and Communication
Who said there isn't a whole lot of psychology in technology? ;) Whether you are determining the current capacity of a deployment or you are recreating a production problem, it's often a very complex task- so many moving parts within the infrastructure, so many numbers to analyze from so many sources, data sets of raw test results to turn into understandable formats, so many people to keep in the loop, so much technical coordination... I could go on and on. It's your professional soft skills which will keep you on the right course. It requires determination to unpeel the layers of an onion and investigate each tier of the deployment. It requires the wisdom to spot trends instead of pursuing the tangents of anomalies. It requires the dedication to keep an eye on many different metrics and isolate resource saturation. And it requires the patience to reproduce scenarios in order to make conclusions based on proof/evidence. And you need to accomplish all of this while being an excellent communicator!

Methodical Approach - The Constant
Spend your time wisely in the beginning and set up the most realistic test scenarios. Then "set" the performance scenario in stone. This means Do Not change even the most minute details in your test case: All transactions flows, all mixtures, all think times, all behaviors - no variations at this point. This is the "constant" in your experiment and it is the only way you can reproduce and compare results. Any deviation within the test case scenario will result in different throughputs which affect resource patterns. Not following this tip will surely lead you on a collision course with Analysis Paralysis!

Architectural Diagram - Identify Potential Bottlenecks by Visualization
Make sure you ask for and receive an architectural diagram of the entire deployment. Map out business transactions to resources utilized within the environment. Make sure you understand all the transaction flows, from front end load balancers down to the shared resource database. Study the deployment and hook up precise monitors, leaving no blind spots. Visualize where contentions or bottlenecks COULD occur. Each resource of the environment must be monitored for signs of saturation. In reality, it's in the identification of where to look for bottlenecks that is the more difficult task. Alleviating these bottlenecks is the easy (and most rewarding) part. But without an architectural map, your journey will easily end by the frustration of getting lost in the dark.

Tuning Hardware and Software Level Bottlenecks
"Tuning is an Art". "Tuning is a Science". Which is it? Hardware servers are restricted by the physical resources (disk io/memory, cpu). Software servers are much more configurable and this is where expertise in needed for tuning. Performance engineers must understand the workings of a "server" in thread pools, caching policies, memory allocations, connection pooling, etc. Tuning is a balancing act. It's the situation where you tune the software servers in order to take full advantage of hardware resources, without causing a flood. Simply opening up all the gates isn't going to help when the backend is saturated with requests. Tuning must be conservative, weighing all the benefits as well as the consequences.

Proof: Reproducible Results
Typically, a seasoned performance engineer will tune a layer of the environment only when the results are reproducible. Always use trends instead of points in time, mere spikes are not cause for architectural changes. As a rule of thumb, you should reproduce 3 times before you make a change. Sometimes this takes a while... So be prepared to be patient. For example, if you are emulating a production login rate of 3 users per second, but the performance deterioration doesn't occur until you have 2000 active users, it will take a while to see it. Making an unnecessary change simply muddies the waters, keep it clear and recreate those exact conditions.

Tune the First Occurring Bottleneck
Make sure you tune the layer which showed contention earliest in the performance test, not the first identified bottleneck. When monitoring a large complex system, there are many counters to keep in your sights. Don't jump the gun and tune a thread pool when you see it becomes saturated, this could actually be a symptom of the problem, not the root cause. Correlate (using graphing is easiest) the point of time of degradation of performance to the first saturation within the environment. Understandably, there is a ton of information to look at - keep it simpler by just looking at the free resources based on percentages (free threads, free cache, and free file descriptors) and this will allow you to spot a bottleneck quicker. When a free resource runs low, there's a possible bottleneck. Understand the resource utilization and free resources will allow you to understand a bottleneck before it affects the end-user response time. In other words, watch as the resource becomes utilized. When free gets low, keep it on your radar for a cause of performance degradation.

Iterative Tuning Process
Tuning is an iterative process. Know that once you have alleviated one bottleneck, you will surely encounter another one. But do not fret... All aspects of servers are limited and since nothing is infinite you will eventually reach the end. Tuning manipulates the gates, requests which don't have a resource are queued and must wait to be serviced. Tuning becomes a process you must repeat until the workload reaches target capacity with acceptable response times.

Validation
Validate, validate, validate. Just as important as recreating and tuning based upon proof is validating that the tuning change had the desired effect. Did it indeed impact scalability in a positive way? Often, performance engineers test out theories. And sometimes, the validation stage will cause a change to be reverted. It's ok that not every change will make it to production. The key is to use a very scientific approach in which you prove the result as well as the requirement.

I hope you gleaned some pearls of wisdom.

Creating the load and emulating production workload is a means to end - you obviously need to create the load before you can capacity plan or understand the scalability of the deployment. But it is the skills in performance analysis that are most valuable. The performance engineer who walks into a project, takes the lead, wastes no time in learning the environment, creates and/or executes the realistic tests, identifies current capacity, isolates and alleviates bottlenecks, documents results, mentors the juniors, and clearly and effectively communicates with everyone from developers on up to the CIO/CTO's, is truly a GOLD MINE.

Becoming a true performance engineer is no easy task, but it's well worth the effort!

More Stories By Rebecca Clinard

Rebecca Clinard is a Senior Performance Engineer at Neotys, a provider of load testing software for Web applications. Previously, she worked as a web application performance engineer for Bowstreet, Fidelity Investments, Bottomline Technologies and Timberland companies, industries spanning retail, financial services, insurance and manufacturing. Her expertise lies in creating realistic load tests and performance tuning multi-tier deployments. She has been orchestrating and conducting performance tests since 2001. Clinard graduated from University of New Hampshire with a BS and also holds a UNIX Certificate from Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The best mobile applications are augmented by dedicated servers, the Internet and Cloud services. Mobile developers should focus on one thing: writing the next socially disruptive viral app. Thanks to the cloud, they can focus on the overall solution, not the underlying plumbing. From iOS to Android and Windows, developers can leverage cloud services to create a common cross-platform backend to persist user settings, app data, broadcast notifications, run jobs, etc. This session provides a high level technical overview of many cloud services available to mobile app developers, includi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ciqada will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ciqada™ makes it easy to connect your products to the Internet. By integrating key components - hardware, servers, dashboards, and mobile apps - into an easy-to-use, configurable system, your products can quickly and securely join the internet of things. With remote monitoring, control, and alert messaging capability, you will meet your customers' needs of tomorrow - today! Ciqada. Let your products take flight. For more inform...
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
Health care systems across the globe are under enormous strain, as facilities reach capacity and costs continue to rise. M2M and the Internet of Things have the potential to transform the industry through connected health solutions that can make care more efficient while reducing costs. In fact, Vodafone's annual M2M Barometer Report forecasts M2M applications rising to 57 percent in health care and life sciences by 2016. Lively is one of Vodafone's health care partners, whose solutions enable older adults to live independent lives while staying connected to loved ones. M2M will continue to gr...
Dave will share his insights on how Internet of Things for Enterprises are transforming and making more productive and efficient operations and maintenance (O&M) procedures in the cleantech industry and beyond. Speaker Bio: Dave Landa is chief operating officer of Cybozu Corp (kintone US). Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, Dave has been on the forefront of the Cloud revolution driving strategic business development on the executive teams of multiple leading Software as a Services (SaaS) application providers dating back to 2004. Cybozu's kintone.com is a leading global BYOA (Build Your O...
While not quite mainstream yet, WebRTC is starting to gain ground with Carriers, Enterprises and Independent Software Vendors (ISV’s) alike. WebRTC makes it easy for developers to add audio and video communications into their applications by using Web browsers as their platform. But like any market, every customer engagement has unique requirements, as well as constraints. And of course, one size does not fit all. In her session at WebRTC Summit, Dr. Natasha Tamaskar, Vice President, Head of Cloud and Mobile Strategy at GENBAND, will explore what is needed to take a real time communications ...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
SYS-CON Events announced today that GENBAND, a leading developer of real time communications software solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The GENBAND team will be on hand to demonstrate their newest product, Kandy. Kandy is a communications Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) that enables companies to seamlessly integrate more human communications into their Web and mobile applications - creating more engaging experiences for their customers and boosting collaboration and productiv...
SYS-CON Events announced today that BroadSoft, the leading global provider of Unified Communications and Collaboration (UCC) services to operators worldwide, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BroadSoft is the leading provider of software and services that enable mobile, fixed-line and cable service providers to offer Unified Communications over their Internet Protocol networks. The Company’s core communications platform enables the delivery of a range of enterprise and consumer calling...
What exactly is a cognitive application? In her session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ashley Hathaway, Product Manager at IBM Watson, will look at the services being offered by the IBM Watson Developer Cloud and what that means for developers and Big Data. She'll explore how IBM Watson and its partnerships will continue to grow and help define what it means to be a cognitive service, as well as take a look at the offerings on Bluemix. She will also check out how Watson and the Alchemy API team up to offer disruptive APIs to developers.
The IoT Bootcamp is coming to Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo on June 9-10 at the Javits Center in New York. Instructor. Registration is now available at http://iotbootcamp.sys-con.com/ Instructor Janakiram MSV previously taught the famously successful Multi-Cloud Bootcamp at Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in November in Santa Clara. Now he is expanding the focus to Janakiram is the founder and CTO of Get Cloud Ready Consulting, a niche Cloud Migration and Cloud Operations firm that recently got acquired by Aditi Technologies. He is a Microsoft Regional Director for Hyderabad, India, and one of the f...
The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
So I guess we’ve officially entered a new era of lean and mean. I say this with the announcement of Ubuntu Snappy Core, “designed for lightweight cloud container hosts running Docker and for smart devices,” according to Canonical. “Snappy Ubuntu Core is the smallest Ubuntu available, designed for security and efficiency in devices or on the cloud.” This first version of Snappy Ubuntu Core features secure app containment and Docker 1.6 (1.5 in main release), is available on public clouds, and for ARM and x86 devices on several IoT boards. It’s a Trend! This announcement comes just as...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @ThingsExpo Blog launched with 7,788 original stories. @ThingsExpo Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @ThingsExpo Blog can be bookmarked. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on Twitter at @MicroservicesE
SYS-CON Events announced today that robomq.io will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. robomq.io is an interoperable and composable platform that connects any device to any application. It helps systems integrators and the solution providers build new and innovative products and service for industries requiring monitoring or intelligence from devices and sensors.
Wearable technology was dominant at this year’s International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) , and MWC was no exception to this trend. New versions of favorites, such as the Samsung Gear (three new products were released: the Gear 2, the Gear 2 Neo and the Gear Fit), shared the limelight with new wearables like Pebble Time Steel (the new premium version of the company’s previously released smartwatch) and the LG Watch Urbane. The most dramatic difference at MWC was an emphasis on presenting wearables as fashion accessories and moving away from the original clunky technology associated with t...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Litmus Automation will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Litmus Automation’s vision is to provide a solution for companies that are in a rush to embrace the disruptive Internet of Things technology and leverage it for real business challenges. Litmus Automation simplifies the complexity of connected devices applications with Loop, a secure and scalable cloud platform.