Welcome!

You will be redirected in 30 seconds or close now.

ColdFusion Authors: Yakov Fain, Jeremy Geelan, Maureen O'Gara, Nancy Y. Nee, Tad Anderson

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Containers Expo Blog, @DXWorldExpo

@DevOpsSummit: Article

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps #WebPerf

The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1)
By Nilabh Mishra

How important is data compression? The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research. Companies like Google and Facebook have spent a lot of time and effort trying to develop faster and better compression algorithms. Compression algorithms have existed since the ’70s and the ongoing research to have better algorithms proves just how important compression is for the Internet and for all of us.

The Need for Data Compression
The World Wide Web (WWW) has undergone a lot of changes since it was made available to the public in 1991. Believe it or not, the copy of the world’s first website can still be browsed here. Back then, webpages were very simple. Today, they are increasingly more complex and there is an evident need to have compression algorithms that are lossless, fast, and efficient.

There are several best practices that help optimize page load times. Here is a blog from that discusses webpage optimization. In this article, we will spend some time understanding the basics of compression and how it works. We will also cover a new type of compression method called “Brotli” in the second part of this blog.

Encoding and Data Compression
Let’s start by understanding what data encoding and compression are:

The word “compression” comes from the Latin word compressare, which means to press together. “Encoding” is the process of placing a sequence of characters in a specialized format that allows efficient data storage as well as transmission. Per Wikipedia: “Data compression involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Compression plays a key role when it comes to saving bandwidth and speeding up your site. Modern day websites involve a lot of HTTP requests and responses between the client (the browser) and the server to serve a webpage. With an overall increase in the number of HTTP requests and responses, it becomes important to ensure that these transfers are taking place at a fast and efficient rate.

HTTP works on a request-response model, as demonstrated below:

In this case, we are not using any compression method to compress the response being sent by the server.

  • The browser sends an HTTP request asking for the Index.html page
  • The server looks for the requested file and responds with the requested resource and a 200 OK HTTP status message
  • The browser receives the server’s response and renders the page

As we can see, in this case there is no compression involved. The server responded with a 300 KB file (index.html page). If the file size was bigger, it would have taken more time for the response to be sent on the wire and this would have increased the overall page load time. Please note that we are currently looking only at a single HTTP response. Modern websites receive hundreds of such HTTP responses from the server to render a webpage.

The image below shows the same HTTP request – response between the browser and the server, but in this case, we use compression to reduce the size of the response being sent by the server to the browser.

Today, complex and dynamic websites generate hundreds of HTTP requests/responses. This made it important to have a system which would ensure fast and efficient data transfer between the server and the browser. This is when compression algorithms like Deflate and Gzip came into existence.

Introduction to Gzip
Gzip is a compression method that is used to make files smaller for storage and faster transmission over the network. Gzip is one of the most popular, powerful, and effective ways of compressing data and it can reduce the file size by up to 70%.

Gzip is based on the DEFLATE algorithm, which in turn is a combination of LZ77 and Huffman coding. Understanding how LZ77 works is essential to understand how compression methods like DEFLATE and Gzip work.

LZ77
Developed in the late ’70s by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv, the LZ77 method of compression looks for sequences of characters that recur in a text. It performs compression by replacing the recurring occurrences of strings using pointers that backreference identical strings, previously encountered in the text, that needs to be compressed.

The pointer or backreference is of the form <relative jump, length>, where relative jump signifies how many bytes are there between the current occurrence of the string and its last occurrence and length is the total number of identical bytes found.

Now let us understand this better with the help of an example. Assume, there is a text file with the following text:

As idle as a painted ship, upon a painted ocean.

In this file, we see the following strings: “as” and “painted” occurring multiple times. What LZ77 method does is, it replaces multiple occurrences of strings with the notation: <relative jump, length>.

So using LZ77, the text will get encoded in the following way:

As idle <8,2> a painted ship, upon a <21,7> ocean.

To encode the text, we took the following steps:

  1. Looked at the string and tried to find occurrences of the same “string” or “substrings”.
  2. Replaced multiple occurrences of a string with the notation: <relative jump, length>; The two strings: “as” and “painted” were replaced the multiple occurrences of the strings with <relative jump, length>.
  3. The string “painted” which would have earlier occupied 7 bytes (i.e. the number of characters in the word: “painted”) X 1 byte = 7 bytes was compressed to occupy only 2 bytes. 2 bytes or 16 bits is the size of the pointer or backreference.

HUFFMAN Coding
Huffman Coding is another lossless data compression algorithm. The frequency of occurrence of a string in a text file or pixels in images form the basis of Huffman coding. To get a deeper understanding of this algorithm, read this detailed tutorial that clearly explains how Huffman Coding works.

All modern browsers support Gzip compression for HTTP Requests. With Gzip, one of the most important question is what to compress. It works best with text-based resources like static HTML, CSS files and JavaScript resources but is not very efficient for already compressed resources such as Images. To support Gzip, the server must be configured to allow gzip compression.

The image above shows the impact Gzip compression can have on a text-based resource like a JavaScript file. In this case, we ran 2 instant tests using Catchpoint to the URL: https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.2.1.js.

For the first test run, we did not specify any encoding to be used by passing the custom header: Accept-Encoding: identity along with the request. The first image shows no Content-Encoding being passed for the request.

In the second image, the browser is sending Accept-Encoding:zip, for which the server is sending zipped file as the response.

We can clearly see how Gzip can drastically compress the files to improve data transmission rate over the wire.

Catchpoint’s Scheduled tests also highlight the difference between compressed and not-compressed content loading on webpages.

In the screenshot above, we see the difference in downloaded bytes for static content (CSS, JavaScript) when using G-zip vs. when not using any encoding.

Brotli Compression
A new compression method called Brotli was introduced not too long ago. The Brotli compression algorithm is optimized for the web and specifically for small text documents. We will discuss more about this compression method and what is has to offer to the World Wide Web community in the second part of the article.

The post Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) appeared first on Catchpoint's Blog - Web Performance Monitoring.

More Stories By Mehdi Daoudi

Catchpoint radically transforms the way businesses manage, monitor, and test the performance of online applications. Truly understand and improve user experience with clear visibility into complex, distributed online systems.

Founded in 2008 by four DoubleClick / Google executives with a passion for speed, reliability and overall better online experiences, Catchpoint has now become the most innovative provider of web performance testing and monitoring solutions. We are a team with expertise in designing, building, operating, scaling and monitoring highly transactional Internet services used by thousands of companies and impacting the experience of millions of users. Catchpoint is funded by top-tier venture capital firm, Battery Ventures, which has invested in category leaders such as Akamai, Omniture (Adobe Systems), Optimizely, Tealium, BazaarVoice, Marketo and many more.

@ThingsExpo Stories
It is of utmost importance for the future success of WebRTC to ensure that interoperability is operational between web browsers and any WebRTC-compliant client. To be guaranteed as operational and effective, interoperability must be tested extensively by establishing WebRTC data and media connections between different web browsers running on different devices and operating systems. In his session at WebRTC Summit at @ThingsExpo, Dr. Alex Gouaillard, CEO and Founder of CoSMo Software, presented ...
Most people haven’t heard the word, “gamification,” even though they probably, and perhaps unwittingly, participate in it every day. Gamification is “the process of adding games or game-like elements to something (as a task) so as to encourage participation.” Further, gamification is about bringing game mechanics – rules, constructs, processes, and methods – into the real world in an effort to engage people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robert Endo, owner and engagement manager of Intrepid D...
Recently, WebRTC has a lot of eyes from market. The use cases of WebRTC are expanding - video chat, online education, online health care etc. Not only for human-to-human communication, but also IoT use cases such as machine to human use cases can be seen recently. One of the typical use-case is remote camera monitoring. With WebRTC, people can have interoperability and flexibility for deploying monitoring service. However, the benefit of WebRTC for IoT is not only its convenience and interopera...
Michael Maximilien, better known as max or Dr. Max, is a computer scientist with IBM. At IBM Research Triangle Park, he was a principal engineer for the worldwide industry point-of-sale standard: JavaPOS. At IBM Research, some highlights include pioneering research on semantic Web services, mashups, and cloud computing, and platform-as-a-service. He joined the IBM Cloud Labs in 2014 and works closely with Pivotal Inc., to help make the Cloud Found the best PaaS.
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader Sergey Grebnov provided an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abilit...
In his session at Cloud Expo, Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, presented a success story of an entrepreneur who has both suffered through and benefited from offshore development across multiple businesses: The smart choice, or how to select the right offshore development partner Warning signs, or how to minimize chances of making the wrong choice Collaboration, or how to establish the most effective work processes Budget control, or how to maximize project result...
To get the most out of their data, successful companies are not focusing on queries and data lakes, they are actively integrating analytics into their operations with a data-first application development approach. Real-time adjustments to improve revenues, reduce costs, or mitigate risk rely on applications that minimize latency on a variety of data sources. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Jack Norris, Senior Vice President, Data and Applications at MapR Technologies, reviewed best practices to ...
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, discussed the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docker c...
"Akvelon is a software development company and we also provide consultancy services to folks who are looking to scale or accelerate their engineering roadmaps," explained Jeremiah Mothersell, Marketing Manager at Akvelon, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Two weeks ago (November 3-5), I attended the Cloud Expo Silicon Valley as a speaker, where I presented on the security and privacy due diligence requirements for cloud solutions. Cloud security is a topical issue for every CIO, CISO, and technology buyer. Decision-makers are always looking for insights on how to mitigate the security risks of implementing and using cloud solutions. Based on the presentation topics covered at the conference, as well as the general discussions heard between sessio...
To Really Work for Enterprises, MultiCloud Adoption Requires Far Better and Inclusive Cloud Monitoring and Cost Management … But How? Overwhelmingly, even as enterprises have adopted cloud computing and are expanding to multi-cloud computing, IT leaders remain concerned about how to monitor, manage and control costs across hybrid and multi-cloud deployments. It’s clear that traditional IT monitoring and management approaches, designed after all for on-premises data centers, are falling short in ...
Organizations planning enterprise data center consolidation and modernization projects are faced with a challenging, costly reality. Requirements to deploy modern, cloud-native applications simultaneously with traditional client/server applications are almost impossible to achieve with hardware-centric enterprise infrastructure. Compute and network infrastructure are fast moving down a software-defined path, but storage has been a laggard. Until now.
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that the upcoming DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO New York event will feature 10 companies from Poland to participate at the "Poland Digital Transformation Pavilion" on November 12-13, 2018.
Digital Transformation is much more than a buzzword. The radical shift to digital mechanisms for almost every process is evident across all industries and verticals. This is often especially true in financial services, where the legacy environment is many times unable to keep up with the rapidly shifting demands of the consumer. The constant pressure to provide complete, omnichannel delivery of customer-facing solutions to meet both regulatory and customer demands is putting enormous pressure on...
The best way to leverage your CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at CloudEXPO. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audienc...
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...