|By Ben Forta||
|February 5, 2002 12:00 AM EST||
Databases and database access are fundamental elements of just about every ColdFusion application ever created. Database access makes applications real and live and dynamic and valuable, but it's also a major source of performance problems and a primary potential security target. In this article I discuss an oft overlooked tag, <CFQUERYPARAM>, designed to help address both potential problems.
Database access (queries, insertions, updates, etc.) occurs by issuing SQL statements - plain text strings containing combinations of special statements, keywords, clauses, operators, and more. These strings are passed to the DBMS for processing (usually via a database driver) and are sometimes referred to as being ad hoc.
So far so good. But this is where it gets a little complicated. There are an infinite number of possible SQL statements (when you take into account the values passed to them), so once a DBMS receives a SQL statement, the DBMS must first analyze it to determine if it's valid, and then work out the best way to process it. Often, the process of parsing, validating, and analyzing the query (the term query refers to all SQL queries, even if they're not SELECT query operations) takes longer than processing the query itself.
Once the query is validated and analyzed, the DBMS tries to cache it so that the process won't need to be repeated unnecessarily. Simple queries without dynamic elements, like the following one, can be cached safely and easily:
However, queries containing other clauses, like the one that follows, are a little harder to cache. After all, with an infinite number of variations it wouldn't be practical for the DBMS to cache them all:
To cache this type of query the DBMS needs to know which part of the statement is dynamic and which is not, and that's where <CFQUERYPARAM> comes into play.
<CFQUERYPARAM> is a tag used within SQL statements (inside your <CFQUERY>). It replaces parameters (or any passed values) with placeholders that indicate the dynamic portions of a statement. For example:
The <CFQUERYPARAM> tag replaces the passed value (100), and does two things: it defines the type of data that will be passed here and then passes the value to be used.
The actual SQL generated by this query will differ from DBMS to DBMS, but that's somewhat irrelevant. The important thing is that the DBMS knows that the query containing this block of text won't change (and can therefore be cached):
In DBMSese these variable portions of SQL statements, the ones bookmarked with <CFQUERYPARAM>, are known as bind parameters.
Specifying SQL Types
The data type passed to CFSQLTYPE tells the DBMS to expect data of a particular type. The supported types are:
CFSQLTYPE is an optional at-tribute, but as a rule you should always specify an explicit type. The default value is CF_SQL_CHAR (a string) and is frequently not what you need.
As already implied, the first benefit of using <CFQUERYPARAM> is increased performance. If the DBMS doesn't have to parse, analyze, and validate as much text, it'll be able to respond to requests quicker and more efficiently.
It's common knowledge that stored procedures execute faster than ad hoc SQL statements. Part of the reason for this is that DBMSs cache the compiled stored procedures so they won't need to be processed repeatedly and unnecessarily. By using <CFQUERYPARAM> you get some of the benefits of stored procedures without having to write one.
If you're interested in determining what the actual performance benefit is, turn on ColdFusion debugging output and try the queries both ways. As the DBMS load increases, so should the benefit of using bind parameters.
Protecting from Malicious URL Tampering
Note: As a rule I'm staunchly opposed to documenting security issues and how they're used, but as this particular vulnerability has been documented extensively (there are even Knowledge Base articles about it at www.macromedia.com) I'm making an exception this time.
Another benefit to using <CF-QUERYPARAM> is security against malicious URL tampering. Consider the following example, an adaptation of the one used previously:
Here a WHERE clause is populated dynamically using a URL parameter. This type of code is common and popular, and is used any time data drilldown of any kind is used. If the URL was:
the resulting SQL statement would be:
But what if someone tampered with that URL so that it read:
The resulting SQL would be:
Depending on the DBMS being used, the <CFQUERY> could end up executing two statements - the SELECT and then DELETE Customers (which would promptly delete all data from the Customers table).
Scared? You should be. As I mentioned earlier SQL statements are not just used for queries. They're also used to create and drop tables, create user logins, change DBMS passwords, set security levels, manage scheduled events, even create and drop entire databases. All features supported by your DBMS may be accessible this way.
Before I go further I must point out that this is not a ColdFusion vulnerability; it's not even a bug or a hole. This is truly a feature - many DBMSs do indeed allow queries to contain more than a single operation; this is legal and by design.
Of course, you should always be checking parameters before passing them to your DBMS. Passing URL parameters through unchecked is programmatic suicide. As such, you should already be using code like this:
AND NOT IsNumeric(URL.CustID)>
... throw an error or something ...
But <CFQUERYPARAM> provides one extra line of defense. If the previous tampered URL was passed to the following query, the value would be rejected and an error thrown. The CFSQLTYPE value also doubles as a datatype validation check, and values that don't match the type are rejected. Using <CFQUERYPARAM> you can secure yourself against one of the oldest and best-known hacks in the book.
Note: This type of hack is one of the reasons you should never configure ColdFusion to use administrative accounts for database access (the SA account, for example). As a rule, the login specified in the data source definition should have just the access it needs and nothing more. If administrative access is not available to a login, then some of the more dangerous commands wouldn't be executable.
<CFQUERYPARAM> is not a new tag; it's been in ColdFusion since version 4.5. However, many developers have yet to use <CFQUERYPARAM>, primarily because they don't understand it. Most good DBMSs (including SQL Server and Oracle) support the use of bind parameters, but some don't. Be sure to read the docs on this tag, and then start plugging it into any new code and even existing apps. With increased performance and improved security you'd be remiss not to.
|fgfrs 05/05/03 03:12:00 PM EDT|
b nv mn m
|Srinivasa 08/22/02 04:02:00 AM EDT|
|Mo Hadi 02/13/02 12:07:00 PM EST|
There must be some kind of special set up necessary to do this, because I get the following error when after I change my code to use CFQUERYPARAM. Am I right?
ODBC Error Code = S1C00 (Driver not capable)
[Microsoft][ODBC SQL Server Driver]Optional feature not implemented
|David Shadovitz 02/12/02 03:28:00 PM EST|
Oops. CFDJ's code cut out my example CFML. Let's see if this gets through:
WHERE id IN (<cfqueryparam value="#Form.ID#" cfsqltype="CF_SQL_INTEGER" list="yes">)
|David Shadovitz 02/12/02 03:25:00 PM EST|
As BF mentions, the default value of cfsqltype is CF_SQL_CHAR.
If you get the error "ODBC Error Code = S1104 (Invalid precision value)", try using CF_SQL_VARCHAR instead.
|David Shadovitz 02/12/02 03:22:00 PM EST|
It's worth mentioning that CFQUERYPARAM can also be used with a list of values:
... WHERE ID IN ()
|Brad Howerter 02/12/02 01:06:00 PM EST|
Another benefit of is that you don't have to mess with preserveSingleQuotes().
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
Sep. 30, 2014 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,273
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
Sep. 29, 2014 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,814
Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
Sep. 28, 2014 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,493
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) irreversibly encoded. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at how this identity problem can be solved and discuss ways to use existing web identities for real-time communication.
Sep. 27, 2014 11:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,840
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn real-world benefits of WebRTC and explore future possibilities, as WebRTC and IoT intersect to improve customer service.
Sep. 27, 2014 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,771
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, an Open Source Cloud Communications company that helps the shift from legacy IN/SS7 telco networks to IP-based cloud comms. An early investor in multiple start-ups, he still finds time to code for his companies and contribute to open source projects.
Sep. 27, 2014 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,242
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
Sep. 27, 2014 09:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,422
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
Sep. 27, 2014 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,308
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
Sep. 27, 2014 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,995
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
Sep. 27, 2014 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,128
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services to the modern P2P RTC era of OTT cloud assisted services.
Sep. 26, 2014 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,475
While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehension and conference efficiency.
Sep. 26, 2014 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,414
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example to explain some of these concepts including when to use different storage models.
Sep. 26, 2014 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,248
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridstore delivers vmOptimized™ Storage that self-optimizes to each application or VM across both virtual and physical environments. Leveraging a grid architecture, Gridstore delivers the first end-to-end storage QoS to ensure the most important App or VM performance is never compromised. The storage grid, that uses Gridstore’s performance optimized nodes or capacity optimized nodes, starts with as few a...
Sep. 26, 2014 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,595
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace. These technological reforms have not only changed computers and smartphones, but are also changing the data processing model for all information devices. In particular, in the area known as M2M (Machine-To-Machine), there are great expectations that information with a new type of value can be produced using a variety of devices and sensors saving/sharing data via the network and through large-scale cloud-type data processing. This consortium believes that attaching a huge number of devic...
Sep. 26, 2014 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,523
Innodisk is a service-driven provider of industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products and technologies, with a focus on the enterprise, industrial, aerospace, and defense industries. Innodisk is dedicated to serving their customers and business partners. Quality is vitally important when it comes to industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products. That’s why Innodisk manufactures all of their products in their own purpose-built memory production facility. In fact, they designed and built their production center to maximize manufacturing efficiency and guarantee the highest quality of our products.
Sep. 26, 2014 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,525
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. Download Slide Deck: ▸ Here
Sep. 26, 2014 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,478
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. Over the summer Gartner released its much anticipated annual Hype Cycle report and the big news is that Internet of Things has now replaced Big Data as the most hyped technology. Indeed, we're hearing more and more about this fascinating new technological paradigm. Every other IT news item seems to be about IoT and its implications on the future of digital business.
Sep. 26, 2014 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,010
BSQUARE is a global leader of embedded software solutions. We enable smart connected systems at the device level and beyond that millions use every day and provide actionable data solutions for the growing Internet of Things (IoT) market. We empower our world-class customers with our products, services and solutions to achieve innovation and success. For more information, visit www.bsquare.com.
Sep. 26, 2014 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,370
With the iCloud scandal seemingly in its past, Apple announced new iPhones, updates to iPad and MacBook as well as news on OSX Yosemite. Although consumers will have to wait to get their hands on some of that new stuff, what they can get is the latest release of iOS 8 that Apple made available for most in-market iPhones and iPads. Originally announced at WWDC (Apple’s annual developers conference) in June, iOS 8 seems to spearhead Apple’s newfound focus upon greater integration of their products into everyday tasks, cross-platform mobility and self-monitoring. Before you update your device, here is a look at some of the new features and things you may want to consider from a mobile security perspective.
Sep. 26, 2014 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,357