Welcome!

You will be redirected in 30 seconds or close now.

ColdFusion Authors: Yakov Fain, Jeremy Geelan, Maureen O'Gara, Nancy Y. Nee, Tad Anderson

Related Topics: ColdFusion

ColdFusion: Article

Fusebox 4

Fusebox 4

The latest version of Fusebox - version 4 - has been taken out of beta and placed into general availability. Over the last seven years, Fusebox has grown from a collection of best practices and snippets of code into a full-featured, robust framework on which developers can build true Web applications.

Over these seven years, Fusebox has become the overwhelming favorite of ColdFusion developers, and it has been ported to JSP, PHP, and Lasso. Organizations as large as UPS, Casio, Dell Computers, the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Army, and Rooms to Go employ Fusebox on their Web sites, intranets, and extranets.

Fusebox is built around the idea of a central controller (the Fusebox) that handles requests (fuseactions) and delegates them to smaller, focused controllers (circuits). These components, in turn, delegate work to individual code files (fuses). Fusebox comes with a set of core files (downloadable from fusebox.org) that implement the framework.

Language-Independent XML
This latest version of Fusebox was almost a year in the making, and comes with added features, bug fixes, and improved performance. The most obvious change is in the controller elements. Previously, an fbx_switch.cfm file found in each circuit contained ColdFusion code to determine which actions were to be taken for each request. For example, this code might be used for a login circuit that was meant to respond to the fuseactions, login, and validateLogin (see Listing 1).

In Fusebox 4, the fbx_switch file is replaced with a circuit.xml file. This file has no ColdFusion code; the file consists of nothing but XML (see Listing 2).

Why the move to XML? XML offers Fusebox architects the ability to state their intention without resorting to code. But what's wrong with code? Nothing, of course, but a code-independent XML grammar allows the underlying Fusebox core code to change without affecting the code written for an application. It provides an interface between the architect's intention and the code's implementation.

This means that the core code for, say, a future Fusebox 5 could be substantially different from Fusebox 4, but not break any Fusebox 4 application code. The issue of backwards compatibility must concern providers of any technology. The use of a stable interface that is later translated into implementing code is one of the best ways of dealing with this problem.

XML Grammar
The purpose of the circuit.xml file, where this grammar will be used, is to define the meaning - not the implementation - of a fuseaction. For that reason, the XML grammar set used in these files is quite small; implementation details should be handled by fuses. Even with a constrained grammar set urging them against it, Fusebox architects must be careful to avoid writing implementation code in circuit files. Table 1 lays out the XML elements that can be used in the circuit.xml file.

 

As with all XML, the circuit.xml file must be well-formed - that is, it must conform to the rules for proper XML usage, such as the use of a closing slash in elements that have no closing tag.

While the XML file initially looks very different from Fusebox 3's fbx_switch file, experience among the beta group has shown that adapting to the new format is fast and easy for existing Fuseboxers.

Performance Through Parsing
One of the largest changes to Fusebox is largely invisible to Fusebox programmers. In previous versions of Fusebox, the core files were read on each request and all processing was handled dynamically - that is, at runtime. This created an overhead common to all dynamic processing models.

Fusebox 4 handles things very differently. Much of what had been dynamically determined is now handled in a separate parsing cycle that executes prior to runtime. The Fusebox 4 XML files are parsed and a single file is produced for each fuseaction, using the syntax: parsed.circuitname.fuseactionname.cfm. All such files are automatically placed in a parsed directory.

At runtime, index.cfm (or whatever the default file is) calls the Fusebox 4 runtime file, fusebox40.runtime file. The first job of the runtime file is to ensure that the parsing cycle has been run - and that no changes to XML files have been introduced since the time last parsed. If the runtime file code determines that the parsed files are not up to date (or are missing altogether), it calls fusebox40.loader, fusebox40.parser, and fusebox40.transformer, all of which work together to produce the parsed files located in the parsed directory.

By preparsing the code, the runtime logic needs only to include the appropriate parsed file. That is, if a request is made of the application to execute the fuseaction, home.main, for example, the runtime code (once it has assured itself that the existing state of parsed files is current) includes the file, parsed/parsed.home.main.cfm. By resolving as many dynamic issues as possible before runtime, performance is greatly improved.

Extending Fusebox with Plug-ins
Fusebox 4 also introduces the idea of plug-ins. Plug-ins provide developers a way of extending Fusebox's core functionality without having to tinker with the core Fusebox code. If the Fusebox core file is written to accommodate virtually any developer working on any project, and the application code is written to deal with individual fuseaction requests, plug-ins inhabit the middle ground - code that should run across multiple fuseactions within an application.

What can plug-ins do? Virtually anything - from logging requests to implementing security to... well, anything. Plug-ins allow the programmer to add application-wide functionality that the Fusebox core designers did not or could not anticipate.

Once the plug-in code is written, it is placed in the plug-ins directory. The plug-in designer determines at which of six plug-in points he or she wishes the plug-in code to run. This decision is registered in another XML file, fusebox.xml, located in the root directory.

The plug-in points reflect different stages of a fuseaction life cycle, such as preprocess (before anything else happens), prefuseaction (immediately prior to a fuseaction call), postfuseaction, and postprocess. The other two plug-in points are not temporally based, but occur when exceptions occur.

Plug-ins provide great extensibility to Fusebox without compromising the integrity of the Fusebox core files. During the beta cycle, several members wrote plug-ins to deal with common issues (such as security) and we expect to see plug-ins used as commonly as custom tags.

Exceptions, Layouts, Accessibility, and Content Components
As good as Fusebox 3 was, it suffered from one unfortunate liability: its exception handling was poor, and Fuseboxers have suffered with obscure exception messages since its release. Built into Fusebox 4 is the ability for the programmer to specify a module to call when an exception is thrown. The particulars of handling exceptions can then be handled by a plug-in. This provides enormous flexibility for a wide variety of needs.

Layouts in Fusebox 3 were exceptionally helpful. In Fusebox 4, they just get better. While Fusebox 3 tied layouts to the physical directory structure, this restriction is gone in Fusebox 4. Layout files lose their special status and simply become a fuseaction, making them easier to build and to employ.

While Fusebox 3 existed uneasily with ColdFusion's tag, this is no longer the case; developers needing to use can do so with impunity. The changes made to layouts also make Fusebox 4 more accessible to users with visual impairments by supporting Section 508 accessibility standards. Especially for government agencies - often charged with "508" issues - this represents a breakthrough.

Fusebox 4 also introduces the idea of granularizing content by providing content component variables that can be combined to form a larger Web page. Content component variables (CCVs) allow fuseactions to concentrate on building pieces of content while deferring the placement and usage of these components to another fuseaction. One obvious use for this technology is the building of portal-style pages, but it can be used whenever developers want to make display code more reusable. CCVs allow for far greater reusability of these components than was available previously.

Is Fusebox 4 for You?
So, with all this "new stuff," how disruptive is the move from Fusebox 3 to Fusebox 4? Surprisingly, not very. In a typical Fusebox application, well over 90% of code written is in fuses. None of this code changes at all. Members of the Fusebox 4 beta group were pleased by how simple porting Fusebox 3 applications to Fusebox 4 was. One member related that an application that had taken over a month to build was upgraded to Fusebox 4 in less than two hours.

Is Fusebox 4 for everyone? Certainly not. Some developers have created their own frameworks that work well for them and their team. Some chafe at the idea of working within any framework. Still others want to use a true object-oriented framework, while Fusebox 4 is solidly procedural. (For more information on an object-oriented framework see the article in the August issue of CFDJ, "Mach-II: Breaking the Procedural Barrier, Vol. 5, issue 8.")

Is Fusebox for you? Of course, you're the only one who can make that judgment, but if you're looking for a powerful, robust, mature framework on which to build solid ColdFusion applications, Fusebox 4 definitely deserves your attention. For more information, including sample applications and core code, visit fusebox.org. If you're interested in attending the Fusebox conference in Las Vegas, visit www.cfconf.org/fusebox2003.

Note: Thanks to John Quarto, Brian Kotek, Sandy Clark, Perry Woodin, and Brian LeRoux for making available to me a pre-release copy of their upcoming book, Discovering Fusebox 4, available at techspedition.com.

More Stories By Hal Helms

Hal Helms is a well-known speaker/writer/strategist on software development issues. He holds training sessions on Java, ColdFusion, and software development processes. He authors a popular monthly newsletter series. For more information, contact him at hal (at) halhelms.com or see his website, www.halhelms.com.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Detecting internal user threats in the Big Data eco-system is challenging and cumbersome. Many organizations monitor internal usage of the Big Data eco-system using a set of alerts. This is not a scalable process given the increase in the number of alerts with the accelerating growth in data volume and user base. Organizations are increasingly leveraging machine learning to monitor only those data elements that are sensitive and critical, autonomously establish monitoring policies, and to detect...
To get the most out of their data, successful companies are not focusing on queries and data lakes, they are actively integrating analytics into their operations with a data-first application development approach. Real-time adjustments to improve revenues, reduce costs, or mitigate risk rely on applications that minimize latency on a variety of data sources. Jack Norris reviews best practices to show how companies develop, deploy, and dynamically update these applications and how this data-first...
Intelligent Automation is now one of the key business imperatives for CIOs and CISOs impacting all areas of business today. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Brian Boeggeman, VP Alliances & Partnerships at Ayehu, will talk about how business value is created and delivered through intelligent automation to today’s enterprises. The open ecosystem platform approach toward Intelligent Automation that Ayehu delivers to the market is core to enabling the creation of the self-driving enterprise.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
"We're a cybersecurity firm that specializes in engineering security solutions both at the software and hardware level. Security cannot be an after-the-fact afterthought, which is what it's become," stated Richard Blech, Chief Executive Officer at Secure Channels, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Consumers increasingly expect their electronic "things" to be connected to smart phones, tablets and the Internet. When that thing happens to be a medical device, the risks and benefits of connectivity must be carefully weighed. Once the decision is made that connecting the device is beneficial, medical device manufacturers must design their products to maintain patient safety and prevent compromised personal health information in the face of cybersecurity threats. In his session at @ThingsExpo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Massive Networks mission is simple. To help your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions. Improve your customer's experience with outstanding connections to your cloud.
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution and join Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader, Sergey Grebnov, in his session at @ThingsExpo, for an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
Because IoT devices are deployed in mission-critical environments more than ever before, it’s increasingly imperative they be truly smart. IoT sensors simply stockpiling data isn’t useful. IoT must be artificially and naturally intelligent in order to provide more value In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Crupi, Vice President and Engineering System Architect at Greenwave Systems, will discuss how IoT artificial intelligence (AI) can be carried out via edge analytics and machine learning techn...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
SYS-CON Events announced today that GrapeUp, the leading provider of rapid product development at the speed of business, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market acr...
In the enterprise today, connected IoT devices are everywhere – both inside and outside corporate environments. The need to identify, manage, control and secure a quickly growing web of connections and outside devices is making the already challenging task of security even more important, and onerous. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Rich Boyer, CISO and Chief Architect for Security at NTT i3, discussed new ways of thinking and the approaches needed to address the emerging challenges of security i...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business - from apparel to energy - is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, discussed the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insights from the vast t...
There is only one world-class Cloud event on earth, and that is Cloud Expo – which returns to Silicon Valley for the 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center, October 31 - November 2, 2017. Every Global 2000 enterprise in the world is now integrating cloud computing in some form into its IT development and operations. Midsize and small businesses are also migrating to the cloud in increasing numbers. Companies are each developing their unique mix of cloud technologies and service...
WebRTC is great technology to build your own communication tools. It will be even more exciting experience it with advanced devices, such as a 360 Camera, 360 microphone, and a depth sensor camera. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Masashi Ganeko, a manager at INFOCOM Corporation, will introduce two experimental projects from his team and what they learned from them. "Shotoku Tamago" uses the robot audition software HARK to track speakers in 360 video of a remote party. "Virtual Teleport" uses a...
Recently, IoT seems emerging as a solution vehicle for data analytics on real-world scenarios from setting a room temperature setting to predicting a component failure of an aircraft. Compared with developing an application or deploying a cloud service, is an IoT solution unique? If so, how? How does a typical IoT solution architecture consist? And what are the essential components and how are they relevant to each other? How does the security play out? What are the best practices in formulating...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arvind Radhakrishnen discussed how IoT offers new business models in banking and financial services organizations with the capability to revolutionize products, payments, channels, business processes and asset management built on strong architectural foundation. The following topics were covered: How IoT stands to impact various business parameters including customer experience, cost and risk management within BFS organizations.