Welcome!

ColdFusion Authors: Yakov Fain, Maureen O'Gara, Nancy Y. Nee, Tad Anderson, Daniel Kaar

Related Topics: ColdFusion, Apache

ColdFusion: Article

Web Services Using ColdFusion and Apache CXF

Enabling Web Services through Java

Since its emergence, Web Service technology has gone a long way towards perfecting itself and finding its right application in the real world. With the maturity of the specifications, Web Service technology, with its power of interoperability, is now the major enabling technology of SOA, which is being adopted by more and more enterprises to build their application integration infrastructure.

Developing Web Services involves a variety of technologies, XML processing, SOAP, and WSDL, to name a few. Luckily, there are frameworks that target handling theses kinds of middleware functions, freeing up developers to focus on the business logic.

Nowadays, many Web Service frameworks exist for all kinds of programming languages. Some of them are open source, others are commercially available. Some examples of such frameworks are Apache Axis and Axis2, WS02 Web Services Framework (WSF), Java Web Services Development Pack (GlassFish), JBossWS, and XINS.

Being one of the Web Service frameworks for Java, Apache CXF is an open source framework developed by the Apache Software Foundation. It's a continuation and merging of two open source projects, Codehaus' XFire project and ObjectWeb's Celtix project. When this was written, the stable version was 2.0.

CXF enables the creation of Web Services using Java technologies. It supports a variety of Web Service standards including WS-I Basic Profile 1.0, WS-Addressing, WS-Policy, WS-ReliableMessaging, and WS-Security.

CXF supports transport protocols like HTTP and JMS. The messaging formats supported include SOAP, XML, RESTFul HTTP, and CORBA. Besides JAXB data binding, it also supports Aegis binding.

CXF is JAX-WS (JSR 224)-compliant and version 2.0 has passed the TCK for JAX-WS 2.0. It makes intensive use of Java 5 annotations and so requires JDK/JRE 5.0 and above.

CXF leverages the Spring application framework for bean management. Endpoints and service clients can be managed as Spring beans.

In the first section of this article, a step-by-step Web Service example using CXF is presented. Some of CXF's basic features are revealed while going through the steps of creating the example. Then we'll touch on some of the unique features of CXF, including RESTful service support and Spring integration. At the end, a brief performance test will compare CXF with JBossWS and the JAX-WS Reference Implementation (RI).

An Example: Getting Movie Show Times
In this example, we'll build a Web Service that lets a client system query for movie show times using the ZIP code entered by a user. For demonstration purposes, most of the irrelevant details are ignored.

CXF supports both code-first development and contract-first development. While code-first development is a handy feature, and most developers find it more straightforward and easier to get start with, it has a vital weakness.

There are several reasons for this. First, a key aspect in successfully developing Web Services is to determine its granularity. Considering the fact that the major application of Web Services is to implement SOA solution at a really high level (e.g., at the enterprise level), the granularity couldn't be too small. In contrast are the Java classes and methods, which tend to be very fine-grained, and are often designed at the very low level (i.e. the class level). Secondly, Web Services bare the nature of language neutral. Building a service from a specific language (like Java) and transforming it into a language-neutral form through some tools would, in some cases, bring over language-specific features, which will degrade the language-neutral nature, thus hurt the interoperability, of the service. Lastly, from a design point of view, service-oriented principles are significantly different from object-oriented paradigms. Although an individual service might be realized using OO principles and techniques, the interaction between services rarely using any of them.

Due to the aforementioned reasons, code-first development will never let you get to the spirit of service-oriented development because developing in Java code and developing in WSDL requires different mindset. Developing with Java code-first and avoiding WSDL as much as possible will guarantee that you will build mediocre software at the best. This is especially true when it comes to designing and developing a SOA solution rather than just individual services.

With that said, let's start with contract-first development for our example, the first step of which is to create the contract - the WSDL document that describes the service.

WSDL Document
Listing 1 shows a segment of the WSDL document. In this document a service called MovieService is defined. This service has only one operation GetShowtimesForZip. The input of this operation is a message containing the ZIP code that the user entered, and the response is a list of theaters and movies along with show times.

The types are defined in a separated XML Schema document and are imported using <xsd:import> statement. The schema document isn't listed here to avoid lengthy text.

Nothing is really special about this WSDL document. Let's now generate the service interface and the service endpoint interface (SEI) from the WSDL document.

Service and Service Endpoint Interfaces
With the WSDL document ready, our next step is to generate server-side Java code from it. CXF provides a tool called wsdl2java that can be used to generate fully annotated Java code from a WSDL document. This tool operates according to the JAX-WS rules for WSDL <--> Java mapping, and its data binding mechanism conforms to JAXB (JSR 22). The tool comes with a set of optional arguments that allow control of the behavior of the tool.

The WSDL document used to generate the Java code has to have a valid portType element, but it doesn't require a binding element or a service element.

The simplest form of running the tool on the command line is listed in Listing 2.

You can specify the package of the generated code using the -p option as shown in Listing 3.

JAX-WS defines an XML-based binding language that can be used to customize the WSDL to Java bindings. The wsdl2java tool implements this feature using the -b option. Listing 4 shows how to specify a JAX-WS binding file for customization.

You can ask the tool to generate an Ant build file for use in your application. To do so, use the -ant option as shown in Listing 5:

Or you can define your own Ant macro. A sample of such a macro is included in the CXF distribution. Listing 6 shows a modified version of it.


More Stories By Jinsong Yang

Jinsong Yang is a senior application engineer at Warnerbros. Advanced Digital Services, and is a Sun Certified Enterprise Architect. He has devoted the last six-plus years to designing and integrating large-scale Java EE applications. He holds an MS in computer science from UCLA.

Comments (3) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
kuldeep_saini83 08/29/09 08:33:00 PM EDT

Hi,
I was searching some article which can help me to implement web service using contract first approach.
I found this article very useful and informative.
Just one thing, code snippets should be complete so that any one can just take that code and able to run WB services.
Still it helped me lot and finally i was able to run WB by contract first approach.

Thaanks...!!!

yogesh 10/06/08 02:27:38 PM EDT

Hey Yang,
Nice article. But how actually we handle transaction in case of spring and cxf?

@ThingsExpo Stories
The 3rd International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that its Call for Papers is now open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have s...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce the value of the network in helping organizations to maximize their company’s cloud experience.
Disruptive macro trends in technology are impacting and dramatically changing the "art of the possible" relative to supply chain management practices through the innovative use of IoT, cloud, machine learning and Big Data to enable connected ecosystems of engagement. Enterprise informatics can now move beyond point solutions that merely monitor the past and implement integrated enterprise fabrics that enable end-to-end supply chain visibility to improve customer service delivery and optimize supplier management. Learn about enterprise architecture strategies for designing connected systems tha...
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, will discuss the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. The presentation will also discuss how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics to discuss are barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold.
Whether you're a startup or a 100 year old enterprise, the Internet of Things offers a variety of new capabilities for your business. IoT style solutions can help you get closer your customers, launch new product lines and take over an industry. Some companies are dipping their toes in, but many have already taken the plunge, all while dramatic new capabilities continue to emerge. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Reid Carlberg, Senior Director, Developer Evangelism at salesforce.com, to discuss real-world use cases, patterns and opportunities you can harness today.
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
Noted IoT expert and researcher Joseph di Paolantonio (pictured below) has joined the @ThingsExpo faculty. Joseph, who describes himself as an “Independent Thinker” from DataArchon, will speak on the topic of “Smart Grids & Managing Big Utilities.” Over his career, Joseph di Paolantonio has worked in the energy, renewables, aerospace, telecommunications, and information technology industries. His expertise is in data analysis, system engineering, Bayesian statistics, data warehouses, business intelligence, data mining, predictive methods, and very large databases (VLDB). Prior to DataArcho...
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how thes...
Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) ir...
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn rea...
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder ...
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other mach...
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice s...
While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehe...
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example...